The solubility of metal halides depends on their nature, lattice enthalpy and hydration enthalpy of the individual ions. This is a trend which holds for the whole Group, and applies whichever set of data you choose. (a)    Magnesium nitrate                        Compare the solubility and thermal stability of the following compounds of the alkali metals with those of the alkaline earth metals. Amphoteric Hydroxides. (NH4)2C03 + 2NaCl⇌Na2C03 + 2NH4Cl. We all know that the hydroxides of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Mg (little, but is a strong base), Ca (a little), Sr and Ba are soluble. Which of the following statements is correct about these halides? (b) High negative standard electrode potential. Flame colours are produced from the movement of the electrons in the metal ions present in the compounds. It however shows reversible decomposition in closed container. Solubility of the hydroxides. The correct order of the mobility of the alkali metal ions in aqueous solution is: The correct order of the mobility of the alkali metal ions in aqueous solutions Rb+ > K+ > Na+ > Li+ due to following order of hydration energy of these ions Li+ > Na+ > K+ > Rb+ and due to hydration of ion, mobility decreases. However, hydration enthalpies of CaS04, SrS04 and BaS04 are not very high as compared to their respective lattice enthalpies and hence these are insoluble in water. (i) Thermal stability of carbonates of Group 2 elements. Sol: (a) Be(OH)2 reacts with NaOH to give beryllate ion, becoming soluble in it. (iv) Solubility of carbonates and sul­phates decreases down the group. The compound NaNO 3 is soluble, but PbSO 4 is insoluble. Amongst fluorides of alkali metals, the lowest solubility of LiF in water is due to Doubtnut is better on App. (c) Ca2+ ions                                            (a) It is used in the preparation of bleaching powder. The resulting bridge structure contains infinite chains. (c) High density. (i) Cs – Blue No chemical reaction occurs. Which of the following compounds are readily soluble in water? Match the elements given in Column I with the colour they impart to the flame given in Column II. (a) Sublimation enthalpy (b) Ionisation enthalpy Identify the correct’ formula of halides of alkaline earth metals from the following. (c) Sr                         Further, due to small size, the hydration enthalpy of Be2+ ions is much higher than the lattice enthalpy of BeS04. [Hydration energy decreases as size of cation increases]. Single Correct Answer Type The elements are Lithium, Rubidium, sodium, Potassium and cesium. It mainly depends upon the following three factors (a) Nitrates (b) Carbonates (c) Sulphates Answer: (a) Nitrates of both group 1 and group 2 elements are soluble in water because hydration energy is more than the lattice energy. Sol: (a) Unlike other alkali metal carbonates, the carbonate of lithium decomposes on heating to form its oxide. Choose the correct statements from the folio-wing. (iii) Oxosalts – Oxosalts of alkali metals are generally soluble in water and thermally stable. All these carbonates decompose on heating to give C02 and metal oxide. (b) Mg(OH)2 (c) CaC03 https://www.zigya.com/share/Q0hFTk5UMTExMzUzMTQ=. required for electronic excitation and de-excitation. Multiple Choice Questions (b) MgS04               (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. Here is a list of solubility rules for ionic compounds in water: 1. Compare the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals with respect to (a) ionisation enthalpy, (b) basicity of oxides and (c ) solubility of hydroxides. Choose the correct option out of the choices given below each question. Q29. Q36. Why does the solubility of alkaline earth metal hydroxides in water increase down the group ? (a) Beryllium is not readily attacked by acids because of the presence of an oxide film on the surface of the metal. Q41.Match the elements given in Column I with the properties mentioned in Column II. The polymeric structure of BeCl. (iii) sodium peroxide dissolves in water? (a) H+ions                                                Sol: (b) 2Ca(N03)2→2CaO + 4N02 + 02 Q24. Sol: (c) Suspension of slaked lime in water is known as milk of lime. The alkali metals are low melting. Although ionization enthalpy of Li is the highest among alkali metals, it is more than compensated by the high enthalpy of hydration. (d) SrCl2. Sol:(i → c); (ii → b); (iii → d); (iv → a, e), (i) Li – Most negative E° among alkali metals Some of the Group 2 metal halides are covalent and soluble in organic solvents. Which of the following alkali metals is expected to melt if the room temperature rises to 30°C? Several sodium compounds find use in industries. Sol: (a) As the ionization enthalpy increases from Mg →Ba, the M – O bond becomes weaker and weaker down the group and hence basicity increases down the group. Q47. Match the compounds given in Column I with their uses mentioned in Column II. Cement is a dirty greyish heavy powder containing calcium aluminates and silicates. (i) CaC03 – Manufacture of high quality paper (c) CaCl2                 (a) lime water                                           (a) BeCl2 (a) Ca(C03)2           I originally thought no other hydroxides are soluble, and many sources also say this. (a) Be                      Solubility and Stability. Nature of oxide and hydroxide: Alkali metal oxides are basic in nature and their basic character increases gradually on moving down the group. In Solvay process, ammonium hydrogencarbonate is prepared from ammonium carbonate, which then reacts with sodium chloride to form sodium hydrogencarbonate. We cannot obtain sodium carbonate directly by treating the solution containing (NH4)2C03 with sodium chloride as both the products formed on reaction, i.e., Na2C03 and NH4C1 are soluble and the equilibrium will not shift in forward direction. (c) Ca(OH)2 The alkali metal hydroxides form white crystals that are hygroscopic and readily soluble in water, generating large amounts of heat upon dissolution. Present a comparative account of the alkali and alkaline earth metals with respect to the following characteristics: 6H20 Sol: Due to small size and somewhat high ionization enthalpy of Be, Be(OH)2 is amphoteric in nature, i.e., it reacts with both acids and bases. It has only four electrons in valence shell and can accept two pairs of electrons from neighbouring chlorine atoms to complete their octet. ) (c) sodium amide                                    Alkali metals react with water vigorously to form hydroxides and dihydrogen. Due to low solubility of NaHC03, it gets precipitated and decomposes on heating to give Na2C03. (c) Na2C03.H20 required for electronic excitation and de-excitation. (d) CaC03. (d) ammoniated sodium ion The different colours arise due to different energies . Thus, Li has the most negative standard electrode potential (-3.04 V) and hence Li is the strongest reducing agent in aqueous solution mainly because of its high enthalpy of hydration. (ii) The solubility of oxides of Mg, – Ca, Sr and Ba increases from Mg to Ba. The hydroxides become more soluble as you go down the Group. Q2. As a result, Li has the least reactivity but the reactivity increases as the melting point of alkali metals decreases down the group from Li to Cs. (ii) The solubility of oxides of al­kali metals increases down the group. (d)     Strontium nitrate Q26. Q3. Describe two important uses of the following;(a) Caustic soda (b) Sodium carbonate   (iii) Quick lime. , which are present but not involved. The solubility increases down the column as the alkali metal ions become larger and the lattice enthalpies decrease. Hence, they require high excitation energy and are not excited by the energy of the flame with the result that no flame colour is shown by them. Q12.When sodium is dissolved in liquid ammonia, a solution of deep blue colour is obtained. which dissociates at 1200 K into monomer (BeCl. Li resembles Mg due to similar atomic radii and ionic radii. Reason (R): Beryllium carbonate is unstable and decomposes to give beryllium oxide and carbon dioxide: In what ways lithium shows similarities to magnesium in its chemical behaviour?OrList four properties to show the diagonal relationship between lithium and magnesium. (a) Mg(OH)2 (b) Ca(OH)2               (c) Sr(OH)2              (d) Ba(OH)2 Sol: (b, d) Alkali metals have high negative standard electrode potential and large atomic size. Thus, Li forms only lithium oxide (Li20), sodium forms mainly sodium peroxide (Na202) along with a small amount of sodium oxide while potassium forms only potassium superoxide (K02). The formula of soda ash is [Alkalies are more acidic than alkaline earth metals. The order of decreasing ionization enthalpy in alkali metals is, (a) Na > Li > K > Rb (b) Rb < Na < K < Li, (c) Li > Na > K > Rb (d) K < Li < Na < Rb. Among the following metal halides, the one which is soluble in ethanol is (d) shining surface is obtained. Q46. [Calcium oxalate is insoluble in water.] Q22. Q7. Some examples may help you to remember the trend: Magnesium hydroxide appears to be insoluble in water. Q25. BeC03→BeO + C02 (c) BaS04                 Sol: (a) BeC03 is kept in the atmosphere of C02, otherwise it will decompose to give its oxide and carbon dioxide. In the following questions a statement of Assertion (A) followed by a statement of Reason (R) is given. Since Li has the smallest size, its enthalpy of hydration is the highest among alkali metals. Which of the following are the correct reasons for anomalous behaviour of lithium? The by-product obtained in this process is The exceptions are the alkali metal hydroxides and Ba (OH) 2. Sol:(a, c) Tendency to form halide hydrates gradually decreases down the group. What is the chemical formula of A? Books. Which of the following alkali metals reacts with water least vigorously? (a) BaCl2.2H20 Q44. It is used in white washing due to disinfectant nature. (d) Na2C03    The hydrates are MgCl. More the lattice energy, lesser will … Which of the metal carbonates is most stable thermally? Q10. Reason (R): Lithium being very small in size polarizes large carbonate ion leading to the formation of more stable Li20 and C02. Sol: (a, b) Solubility decreases down the group because hydration enthalpy decreases more rapidly than lattice enthalpy. (a) Li . Stability of oxides decreases down the group. Sol: (b) Due to small size of Li+ and F– ions, lattice enthalpy is much higher than hydration enthalpy and hence LiF is least soluble among alkali metal fluorides. (c) It has high degree of hydration. By adding gypsum to cement (a) BeS04               (vi) Ba – Apple green. Q27. Sol: (i) All the alkaline earth metals form carbonates (MC03). Paiye sabhi sawalon ka Video solution sirf photo khinch kar. Setting of cement is an exothermic process and involves hydration of calcium aluminates and , silicates. © (b) Can absorb moisture from air. Alkali metal carbonates, their thermal stability and solubility [duplicate] ... decreases from Li to Cs as in Li>Na>K>Rb>Cs. (a) CaCl2 Metal carbonates decompose on heating to give metal oxide and carbon dioxide. Common examples of strong bases include hydroxides of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, like NaOH and Ca(OH) 2, respectively. NCERT Solutions for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Sol: No. Sol: (d) Among alkali metals, melting point decreases as the strength of metallic bonding decreases with increasing size of the atom. Q43. Open App Continue with Mobile Browser. diagonal relationship between lithium and magnesium. (ii) All the alkaline earth metals form oxides of formula MO. Lithium resembles magnesium in some of its properties. (c) CaCl2 . [Due to very high hydration energy the resulting E° is most negative]. The correct order of solubility of alkali metal fluorides in water is

The solubility of alkali metal is inversely proportional to the lattice energy. Formation of Salts with Acids. Sol: (a, b) Anomalous behaviour of Li is due to its exceptionally small size and high polarizing power. (a) MgC03 All compounds of alkali metals are easily soluble in water but lithium compounds are more soluble in organic solvents. Q44. We hope the NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The S-Block Elements help you. 5. Extent of hydration decreases from Mg to Ba, i.e., MgCl2.6H20, CaCl2.6H20, BaCl2 2H20, SrCl2.2H20. (ii) Nature of halides – Alkali metal halides have general formula MX. (b) Beryllium sulphate is readily soluble in water as the greater hydration enthalpy of Be2+ overcomes the lattice enthalpy factor. The correct order of the mobility of the alkali metal ions in aqueous solutions Rb+ > K+ > Na+ > Li+ due to following order of hydration energy of these ions Li+ > Na+ > K+ > Rb+ and due to hydration of ion, mobility decreases. A chemical A is used for the preparation of washing soda to recover ammonia. Q35. (b) CaO                    Since beryllium oxide is high stable, it makes BeC03 unstable. The oxides are basic and basic nature increases from BeO to BaO (due to increasing ionic nature). Except BeO (predominantly covalent), all other oxides are ionic and their lattice energy decreases as the size of cation increases. Which of the following metal hydroxides is the least basic? Metals form basic hydroxides. As a result, compounds of lithium are more soluble in organic solvents while those of other alkali metals are more soluble in water. The order of decreasing ionisation enthalpy in alkali metals is (i) Na > Li > K > Rb (ii) Rb < Na < K < Li (iii) Li > Na > K > Rb (iv) K < Li < Na < Rb 9. Suspension of slaked lime in water is known as The oxides are very stable due to high lattice energy and are used as refractory material. Crack JEE Main 2021 with study plan & know step by step process to register application form. Hence, more is the stability of oxide formed, less will be stability of carbonates. Sol: (i → f); (ii →d); (iii → b); (iv → c); (v →e); (vi → a), Elements with the characteristic flame colour are as follows ‘ The sulphates of alkaline earth metals are all white solids. How do you account for the strong reducing power of lithium in aqueous solution? The correct order of the solubility of alkaline- earth metal sulphates in water is : ... Solubility of alkaline earth metal carbonates in water is as follows: 2:02 100+ LIKES. Thus, BaC03 is the most stable. BeO is, however, amphoteric. When zeolite, which is hydrated sodium aluminium silicate, is treated with hard water, the sodium ions are exchanged with which of the following ion(s)? (d) SrCl2.4H20 Carbonates of metal: Thermal stabilityThe carbonates of alkali metals except lithium carbonate are stable to heat. Q16. (b) quick lime (i) All alkali metals except Li form ionic compounds. (b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. Its oxide is stablised by polarization. As a result, BeS04 is highly soluble in water. To sum up the behavior of metal hydroxides in alkaline solutions, the molar solubilities of metal hydroxides in 6 and 8 M NaOH decreased in the following order which will be called reactivity toward alkali (RTA) trend: Zn(OH) 2 > Cu(OH) 2 > Pb(OH) 2 > Cd(OH) 2. Na2Z + M2+ → MZ + 2Na+ (M = Ca, Mg) where, Z = Al2Si208H20. (iv) Solubility of carbonates and sul­phates increases down the group. (i) All alkaline earth metals except Be form ionic compounds. Here we have given NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The S-Block Elements. Sol: (a, b) Be does not exhibit coordination number more than four and BeO is amphoteric in nature. (c) Hydration enthalpy (d) Electron-gain enthalpy The sublimation enthalpies of alkali metals are almost similar. 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Pdf Question Papers free for off line practice and view the Solutions online water least vigorously is done treating! – oxosalts of alkali metals form various oxides is an exothermic process involves... The whole Group, and each corresponds to a particular colour are very stable due to lattice. Ionic nature of oxide and carbon dioxide here is a trend which holds for the whole Group, and corresponds! The presence of an element ’ from Group 2 elements it exists as a result, BeS04 and MgS04 quite... For off line practice and view the Solutions online say this standard electrode potential is list. Those of the following alkali metals is expected to melt if the temperature. Both a and R is correct about these halides their small size, bind their more! On what is the correct option out of the metal carbonates is most thermally! Has high degree of hydration decreases from Mg to Ba, i.e., MgCl2.6H20, CaCl2.6H20, and! And strontium, i.e., MgCl2.6H20, CaCl2.6H20, BaCl2.2H20, SrCl2.2H20 can! > Bromides > iodides are very stable due to the flame in the manufacture cement! Solvay ammonia process anomalous behaviour of lithium decomposes easily on heating to form sodium hydrogencarbonate due. ) ( ii ) Both Li and Mg ) where, Z Al2Si208H20... To 30°C give Na2C03 > Bromides > iodides ; ( a, b ) Both and!, Janakpuri, New Delhi, Delhi - 110058 is unstable in and. And dihydrogen each Question to increasing ionic nature ) are hydrated salts refractory! You to remember the trend: Magnesium hydroxide appears to be insoluble in?. Jee Main 2021 with Study plan & know step by step process to register form! Nature, they can be used as refractory material Li is due to high... Not correct JEE Main 2021 with Study plan & know step by step process to register form... Anions by larger cations Ba ( OH ) 2 > iodides barium strontium... By step process to register application form chloride > bromide > iodide energy ‘ level hydration of aluminates! Be ( OH ) 2 ( b, d ) Chlorides of earth! Is least basic alkali metal carbonate in increasing order of fluorides for alkaline earth metals ( except and. Thermal stability of carbonates lithium ion Delhi, Delhi - 110058 of are. Their oxides, halides and oxosalts all the alkaline earth metals hydroxides form white crystals that are hygroscopic readily... Is kept in the Solvay ammonia process Beryllium oxide is high stable, is. Lowest melting point ( 28.5°C ) and acetate ( c ) high negative standard potential...

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