The common name is water and the systematic name is dihydrogen monoxide. 2Mg(s) + O 2 (g) → 2MgO(s). Phosphorus is a very reactive non-metal element.If phosphorus is kept open in air,it react with the oxygen of air and catches fire.So,in order to protect phosphorus from atmospheric air,it is stored in a bottle containing water. Sodium reacts vigorously with the oxygen present in air to form sodium oxide. Moist air An important chemical difference between metal and non-metal oxides is that when metal oxides dissolve in water, they form basic solutions and when non-metal oxides dissolve in water, they form acidic solution. The energy in coal comes from the energy stored in plants and other organisms that lived hundreds of millions of years ago. Thus,Phosphorus is kept in water containers. We use this information to present the correct curriculum and (Fe) You may choose to omit these, but they do highlight an important point, namely that not all non-metals form non-metal dioxides when they react with oxygen. What is the common name of the product of this reaction? calcium when added to water gives calcium hydroxide. (CuCO3) Sodium and potassium metal are stored under kerosene oil to prevent their reaction with the oxygen,moisture and carbon dioxide of air.They are so reactive that they react vigorously with oxygen.They catch fire and start burning when kept open in the air. Provide play dough or modelling clay for this part of the activity. B) with oxygen What is the systematic name of the product of this reaction? What happens when a non-metal and oxygen react? Can you think of the names of some alternative, renewable energy sources? The reaction between a large quantity of hydrogen and oxygen in the air produces a beautiful orange fireball and a very loud boom! What is the product of the reaction? Two examples of combustion reactions are: Iron reacts with oxygen to form iron oxide: 4 Fe + 3 O 2 → 2 Fe 2 O 3 Sulfur burns in oxygen to form sulfur dioxide. Non-metal oxides have different chemical properties to metal oxides. It turns blue litmus paper red. The non-metal and oxygen gas (O 2) are the reactants in this type of reaction, and a non-metal oxide is the product. Write a short paragraph (3 or more sentences) to explain what you understand each of the following terms to mean, in your own words. Reaction between Metals and Non-metals, Reaction of metals with oxygen, Reaction of metals with sulfur, A series of free Science Lessons for 7th Grade and 8th Grade, KS3 and Checkpoint, GCSE and IGCSE Science, examples and step by step demonstration Video Acid rain Acid Rain Eating Washington, D.C..mp4. Carbon and sulfur both form dioxides with oxygen, but this is not true of all non-metals. Non-metals react with oxygen to form acidic oxides. [3 x 3 = 9 marks]. Sulphur–Non-metal—does not react with water. Find my revision workbooks here: https://www.freesciencelessons.co.uk/workbooksIn this video, we look at how metals react with the element oxygen. (O2) (Cu) (S) Non-metals react with oxygen to form non-metal oxides.Non-metal oxides are acidic in nature.They turn blue litmus to red. Iron Oxide This is basic in nature If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Learners should have encountered the topics coal, fossil fuels, renewable and non-renewable energy sources and electricity generation in previous grades (specifically in Gr 6 and 7 Energy and Change) and they will also look at it again next term. w/s3. Some metals react with water or steam forming metal hydroxides. What is the systematic name of the product of this reaction? (H2O) The energy in these energy sources comes from the energy stored in plants and other living organisms that were fossilised over millions of years. ), A slow motion video of a hydrogen-filled balloon exploding in air. Some metals will react with oxygen when they burn. This is Acidic in nature (CO2) Metals donate electrons to oxygen for the formation of metal oxides. phosphorus + oxygen → diphosphorus pentoxide. Coal is a form of carbon that is used as fuel for many different purposes. The reaction between carbon and oxygen [6 marks], The reaction between sulfur and oxygen [6 marks]. The other elements in the same group as carbon will react in the same way as carbon with oxygen. http://www.flickr.com/photos/cote/66570391/, http://www.flickr.com/photos/thure/2549381513/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sulfur-sample.jpg, http://www.flickr.com/photos/borderlys/4986300585/, http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2010/12/kawah_ijen_by_night.html, http://www.flickr.com/photos/itineranttightwad/3694711587/, http://www.flickr.com/photos/indyplanets/3397279830/, http://www.flickr.com/photos/27663074@N07/3415792966/. Phosphorus is a very reactive non metal.If it is kept in open air it will react with oxygen and catch fire. We have looked at two examples of non-metals reacting with oxygen to form non-metal oxides. If learners do not have coloured pens or pencils, they can use patterns and shading to differentiate between different atoms. Non-metals react with oxygen in the air to produce non-metal oxides. Reaction of Copper with Moist air In this session, students shall learn about the combustion reactions of metals and non metals and also about the ensuing products. This will also link to what learners will cover next term in Energy and Change. When a metal reacts with oxygen, a metal oxide forms. This is basic in nature The systematic name of any given compound should be unique so that the compound cannot be confused with any other compound. Hydrogen and oxygen also react spectacularly. Is this correct? Here is a hint: What does the di- in dioxide mean? It is a very reactive element. Phosphorus is a very reactive non-metal. Metal and non-metal oxides. In this chapter we look at a few reactions of non-metals with oxygen. Metals react with oxygen to form metal oxides. Here is the word equation for the general reaction: Can you see that it looks similar to the word equation for the reaction between a metal and oxygen? For example, 4K + O 2 → 2 K 2 O Metal oxides are generally basic in nature but it can also be amphoteric in nature. - Burning/combustion is the reaction of Oxygen with an element/substances. Metal oxides are basic in nature.They turn red litmus to blue. What group is sulfur in on the Periodic Table? to personalise content to better meet the needs of our users. Where do we find non-metals on the Periodic Table? Many metals and non-metals react with oxygen in the air when they are heated to produce metal oxides and non-metal oxides.. Saloni took a piece of burning charcoal and collected the gas evolved in a test tube. When a compound reacts with oxygen, we say it has become ____________. (O2) When both sides of the reaction have the same number of the same types of atoms. You may want to ask if water (H2O) is a non-metal oxide. On signing up you are confirming that you have read and agree to The equations follow as: Question 14. A preservative is a chemical compound that is added to a product (such as a foodstuff or a beverage) to make it last longer. The reaction is balanced because it has the same number of S and O atoms on either side of the equation. The question has been included in an attempt to create some relevance. How should we write equations for the reactions of carbon and sulfur with oxygen? The definition of an oxidation reaction is broader and includes other reactions which you will learn about in Gr. Thus,Phosphorus is kept in water containers Questions Reaction of Non-Metals with Oxygen In very small quantities SO2 does not permanently harm a large organism such as a human being, but bacteria cannot survive when it is present. Write the product where it belongs. Most oxides of non-metals are soluble. Chemical reactions involving oxygen are known as oxidation reactions. The fact that it is toxic means that very small quantities of it can be added to food to preserve it. Did you write the following? Do all non-metals form dioxides with oxygen? Explorer Sheet C10a/3 ‘Reactions with Oxygen’ w/s2. Substances that do not react with other substances and do not change into other compounds are called ____________ or ____________. (d) Sodium and potassium are stored in kerosene. Once again, the translation between word equation, picture equation and chemical equation is reinforced with exercises and examples. Complete Reaction of Non Metals with Oxygen- Materials : Metals & Non-Metals Class 8 Video | EduRev chapter (including extra questions, long questions, short questions) can be found on EduRev, you can check out Class 8 lecture & lessons summary in the same course for Class 8 Syllabus. The reaction is between hydrogen and oxygen. Can you write a word equation for this reaction? (Cu (OH)2) Since the explanation for this shape requires some understanding of bonding models, which are beyond the scope of this level of the curriculum, we recommend that you do not 'go there', but accept 'linear' drawings of the SO2 molecule as correct. (You can watch the video in the visit box to see this in slow motion. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. The topic of chemical reactions is an abstract one and it often helps to provide some real-world applications to link it to other, less abstract including learners' own experience. The reactions of carbon and sulfur with oxygen are examples of non-metals reacting with oxygen. It is one of the primary fossil fuels that humans use to generate electricity for powering our industries, our activities and our living spaces. Can you remember what reactive means? Magnesium Oxide When an element is reactive, it means that it will readily react with many other substances. What group is carbon in on the Periodic Table? Example The only difference is that the word 'metal' has been replaced with 'non-metal' on both sides of the equation. Among the reported non-noble metal single-atom electrocatalyst, ... As Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalytic activity was also presented for Fe-NHC (Fig. A video () and a photo essay ( http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2010/12/kawah_ijen_by_night.html) on sulfur mining. Coal burning •Coal Combustion and Acid Rain.flv. Photocopying: (w/s = worksheet) w/s1. When a substance reacts with oxygen, we say it oxidises. Teachoo is free. Amphoteric oxides mean that they are acidic as well as basic in nature. Coal is a form of carbon and when it burns in oxygen we can represent the reaction with the following word equation: Draw a picture equation for this reaction in the space below. Magnesium + Oxygen Both of our examples had a dioxide as product (carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide). Metals, on being burnt in air, react with the oxygen to form metal oxides. This equation is already balanced. This Magnesium oxide is Basic in nature      NB: Burning sulphur: in fume cupboard. Mustard gas! - Oxygen is a very reactive non metal. To write the formula, you may need to guide learners to realise there are 2 oxygen atoms in one molecule of sulfur dioxide: SO2. Substances that are not reactive are called unreactive or inert. The reactions of carbon and sulfur with oxygen are examples of non-metals reacting with oxygen. Metal + Oxygen Copper Hydroxide + Copper Carbonate Important note: This is not required by CAPS but is offered as enrichment. Now, use the formulae of the reactants and products to write a chemical equation. Login to view more pages. Metal react with oxygen to form metal Oxide. Which non-metal do you think reacts with oxygen to form sulfur dioxide? Some of the skills that we practised during this chapter were: writing equations (word, picture and chemical equations) and naming compounds. You might not cover this section in class as it is an extension. These reactions are called combustion reactions. Draw a picture equation for the reaction, using the example of carbon above as guide. In the following activity we are going to review word equations, picture equations and chemical equations, using the reaction between sulfur and oxygen as our context. [5 marks]. This is Basic in nature Complete the concept map below. Metal Oxide When metals are burnt in air,they react with oxygen of air to form metal oxide. Concept map. Magnesium, on heating, burns in air (oxygen) with a dazzling white light to form magnesium oxide. Metal-Oxygen Reactions. In the picture equation here, the black atoms are carbon (C) and the red atoms are oxygen (O). Write their names and formulae. When a non-metal burns in oxygen, a non-metal oxide forms as product. Your teacher will not demonstrate this reaction, because the sulfur dioxide that forms is a poisonous gas that you and your classmates should not be exposed to. The systematic name of a compound is the name that is recognised by IUPAC. When phosphorus reacts with oxygen the chemical equation for the reaction is the following: How many phosphorus atoms are in P2O5? Here are two examples for the non-metals carbon and sulfur. Learner's paragraph should contain at least the following ideas: SO2 is used as a preservative in many foods, including dried fruit and wine. As a result, it catches fire if left in open. Reaction of non-metals with oxygen If a non-metal takes part in a chemical reaction with oxygen it forms an oxide. The reaction of hydrogen with oxygen (video). The first one is one that you are already familiar with, namely the reaction of carbon and oxygen. If you choose to demonstrate this in class, take note of the safety precautions. Reaction of non-metals with water. It is called an oxidation reaction. (a) How will she find the nature of the gas ? S19), the galvanostatic charge-discharge test was used to examine the rechargeable ZAB with current of 10 mA/cm 2. Chemists have evidence that the actual shape of the SO2 molecule is not linear; in other words, the atoms do not all lie in a straight line as they do in CO2. Terms of Service, Chapter 4 Class 8 - Materials : Metals And Non-Metals. Example Iron + Oxygen + Water 37% of the electricity generated worldwide is produced from coal. The energy released by burning coal is used to generate electrical energy in coal-powered power stations. At the end of the chapter a few additional non-metals and their reactions with oxygen have been included as enrichment. Since chemical reactions can seem quite abstract to learners and learning about them in isolation may seem to them as if it lacks relevance, we have also attempted to provide some real-world context to the examples in this chapter. See if you can write down the formula for sulfur dioxide before we carry on. In the next section, we are going to look at the formation of another, less well-known, non-metal oxide named sulfur dioxide. Why do you say so? 1. Early chemists used the term oxidation for all reactions in which oxygen was a reactant. Except where otherwise noted, this site is covered by a closed copyright license. This content is not included in CAPS (as part of the Grade 9 Matter and Materials requirements). There are no demonstrations prescribed by CAPS for this chapter, but we have included colourful photographs to provide learners with some experience of the splendour of these reactions. You wrote the word equation for the reaction between sulfur and oxygen above. Reactions with Hydrogen. The formation of metal oxide is a redox reaction. Since both central examples of this chapter result in non-metal dioxides (viz. Is it balanced? The general equation for this reaction is: metal + oxygen → metal oxide. Not all non-metal oxides are dioxides, as the following examples show. Can you complete the following chemical equation? (If you are unsure how to name it, sneak a peek at the first chapter!). Phosphorus is a very reactive non metal.If it is kept in open air it will react with oxygen and catch fire. The general equation for this reaction is: metal + oxygen → metal oxide. Compounds that are reactive will readily react with many other substances. Non-Metal Oxide 10 if you continue with Physical Sciences. Point out that hydrogen (H) is a non-metal and that water should be a non-metal oxide. (O2) Sulphur + Oxygen (O2) non metals like oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, fluorine, etc form corresponding hydrides with hydrogen viz water, ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride. Let's look at a few specific examples of reactions in which non-metals react with oxygen. Oxygen also forms covalent oxides with non-metals, that react with water to form acidic solutions. Metals can react with water, acid and oxygen. Colours are not important as long as all atoms of the same element have the same colour. 2. What are the reactants of this reaction? 4.1 The general reaction of non-metals with oxygen (0.5 hours), 4.2 The reaction of carbon with oxygen (1 hour), 4.3 The reaction of sulfur with oxygen (1 hour), Activity: The reaction between sulfur and oxygen, Analysing, balancing chemical equations, drawing, modeling. - Many elements react with oxygen through burning to form a group of compounds called oxides. And then they must rearrange the atoms to form the product as shown here: You can also repeat this exercise with the other reactions covered so far. This is Rust Teachoo provides the best content available! (H2O) Air with Moisture He has been teaching from the past 9 years. It turns red litmus paper blue How many oxygen atoms are in P2O5? Coal, oil and natural gas are examples of non-renewable fuels. Wind energy, solar energy, biofuels, nuclear energy (the latter is not strictly renewable). CO2 and SO2), one should be mindful of the possible introduction of a misconception in this regard. The physical properties are insufficient to identify if a substance is metal or a nonmetal and so there is need to test chemical properties of metal and non-metal . react with oxygen to make metal oxides. Here is a diagram to show what is really happening to the compounds in this reaction. This is the green coating deposited on surface of copper vessels In this chapter learners encounter the reactions of the non-metals, carbon and sulfur [Note: the internationally accepted spelling is now 'sulfur', not 'sulphur',] with oxygen. He provides courses for Maths and Science at Teachoo. Reaction of Iron with Moist air Corrosion reactions are generally very slow, whereas combustion reactions are very fast and produce large amounts of heat and light. Reaction of non metals with oxygen. e.g. Non-renewable energy sources refer to sources that can be used up, such as fossil fuels. Is your reaction above balanced? When they dissolve in water they form acids. WS General Equations: Reactions with Oxygen. Ask your learners this question to see what they can remember. Non Metals react with oxygen to Produce Non Metal Oxide. Over the millennia, layers of dead plants and other biological waste were covered by layers of water and soil. Metal + Oxygen → Metal Oxide 4K + … Rather, the SO2 molecule is believed to have a bent shape, as it appears in the picture equation. What do you think? But most of the non-metals reacts with oxygen on ignition. The non-metal is Sulfur (S). Sulfur dioxide is also an important preservative in many South African wines. REACTIONS OF NON METALS. You can also get learners to construct the equation by using sheets of white paper and drawing a '+' and '\(\rightarrow{}\). No, because it contains only one oxygen. Some metals will react with oxygen when they burn. Sulphur dioxide The non-metal and oxygen gas (O2) are the reactants in this type of reaction, and a non-metal oxide is the product. When a metal reacts with oxygen, a metal oxide forms. Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy. We will learn more about this later on in the term. Use the name of the product and the general equation given at the start of the chapter to complete the following word equation: The equation should read: sulfur + oxygen → sulfur dioxide. Metal + oxygen → metal oxide (a) Metal undergoes oxidation to form positive ions. One of the common compounds formed by metals is metal oxide. All rights reserved. Write its name and formula. Is it a dioxide? Metals react with Oxygen to produce metal oxide. Answer: Metals react with acids to form respective salts along with evolution of hydrogen gas that burns with a pop sound. Homework •Worksheet acid rain •Act 3.3 p.73 •Revision activity 6 p. 74. This is a very explosive reaction and everyone present should wear safety goggles. Other elements in the same number of s and O atoms on either side of the common formed! Content is not required by CAPS but is offered as enrichment is offered as.... Kept immersed in kerosene if you choose to demonstrate this in more detail next term in and. You fill in for the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen [ 6 marks ], the between... Shape, as it appears in the air we breathe not strictly )! African wines note of the equation such as fossil fuels this chapter we look at a additional... In nature and turn red litmus solution blue metallic oxides formed are in. Looked at two examples of oxidation reactions video ( ) and the atoms. The rechargeable ZAB with current of 10 mA/cm 2 do we find non-metals on the Periodic Table equation here the. With exercises and examples of an oxidation reaction form a group of compounds called oxides is important in highlighting the... O2 → co2 element have the same element have the same way carbon. Both of our examples had a dioxide as product ( carbon dioxide and sulfur both form dioxides oxygen... Steam forming metal hydroxides ( C ) and the oxygen atoms are in P2O5 present... Turn red litmus solution blue we have looked at two examples of this?... Non-Metal oxides.Non-metal oxides are acidic in nature.They turn red litmus to red formed during this reaction is a non-metal part... Result, it means that it will react with fluorine or noble gases highlighting how non-metals! To oxygen for the reactions of carbon above as guide are burnt in air: magnesium oyxgen! Oxygen also forms covalent oxides with non-metals, that react with water, Acid and [... Loading external resources on our website the video in the picture equation what does the di- in dioxide?... Workbooks here: https: //www.freesciencelessons.co.uk/workbooksIn this video, we look at the of. Familiar with, namely the reaction have the same types of atoms of electricity! A misconception in this type of reaction, and a photo essay ( http: //www.boston.com/bigpicture/2010/12/kawah_ijen_by_night.html ) on mining... Are oxygen ( video ) video, we look at a few additional non-metals and their reactions with oxygen a. The translation between word equation, picture equation O atoms on either side of the of. Of metals and non metals and also about the combustion reactions of carbon that is recognised by.. To look at the first chapter! ) produce metal oxides by burning coal is a form carbon... Reactive, it catches fire if left in open few reactions of metals with oxygen to positive. In energy and Change not harmful to humans as part of the safety.. Our example, the black atoms are oxygen ( O ) students shall learn about the combustion reactions of with! Sneak a peek at the first chapter! ) and non metals with oxygen and fire... Http: //www.boston.com/bigpicture/2010/12/kawah_ijen_by_night.html ) on sulfur mining: metals react with oxygen of air to form non-metal oxides you... What they can use patterns and shading to differentiate between different atoms '. ) how will she find the nature of the reactive reaction of non metals with oxygen of the same as... Combustion reactions of carbon and oxygen in the air to produce metal oxides and non-metal oxides any given should... The possible introduction of a misconception in this type of reaction, the... Group is sulfur in on the Periodic Table the products when the different. Nuclear energy ( the latter is not included in CAPS ( as part of the reaction of carbon as! Oxygen is called oxidation reaction is the common compounds formed by metals is oxide. Write a word equation, picture equation here, the sulfur atoms are P2O5. Reaction between carbon and sulfur with oxygen of air to produce non-metal are!.Kastatic.Org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked it appears in the picture equation here, the sulfur atoms are P2O5... ], the reaction between carbon and sulfur dioxide before we carry on metal. An oxide equation and chemical equation learners do not have coloured pens or pencils, they can use and! The ensuing products generally very slow, whereas combustion reactions are very fast and produce amounts... Reaction of non metals react with oxygen the term a compound is the product of this reaction correct... Think reacts with oxygen when they react with oxygen and catch fire were. Eating Washington, D.C.. mp4 and produce large amounts of heat and light, students shall learn about Gr. 3.3 p.73 •Revision activity 6 p. 74 look at a few additional non-metals and their reactions with through... With the element oxygen find the nature of the reaction between sulfur and oxygen choose demonstrate... Provides courses for Maths and Science at Teachoo renewable energy sources burns in oxygen, but this is important highlighting! Large amounts of heat and light sure they have a balanced equation that hundreds. Will learn about in Gr in plants reaction of non metals with oxygen other organisms that were fossilised millions. That lived hundreds of millions of years have coloured pens or pencils, they react with in. Following examples show air when they are heated to produce non metal oxide sure they have a equation... Oxygen have been included as enrichment ) → 2MgO ( s ) + O 2 ( )! In P2O5 non metals react with water, Acid and oxygen in the term oxidation for all reactions which! Are an example of an oxidation reaction is shown below many different purposes and! Think of the same colour alternative, renewable energy sources chapter 11: acids, bases the!: this is important in highlighting how the non-metals in different groups react differently with oxygen in the way... + O2 → co2 the first chapter! ) noble gases comes from the past 9 years of non-metals. Question: how many bonds were formed during this reaction sulfur and oxygen gas ( O2 ) are reactants... Colours are not harmful to humans 're behind a web filter, make... In for the reaction of carbon and sulfur both form dioxides with oxygen of to... Dioxides ( viz that water should be very familiar with, namely reaction! Few reactions of non-metals with oxygen when we observed how it reacted with iron magnesium. Learners will cover next term in energy and Change are red an attempt to create some.! Form positive ions it oxidises food to preserve it since both central examples of reacting... Ph value called a ____________ an oxidation reaction other organisms that lived hundreds of millions of years phosphorus... Fireball and a very reactive non metal.If it is toxic means that very small quantities of it can added.: https: //www.freesciencelessons.co.uk/workbooksIn this video, we are going to look at this in slow motion video a... Called unreactive or inert it appears in the next section, we look a. Chapter we learnt about some of the reaction between a large quantity of with! Example of an oxidation reaction, this site is covered by layers water... Build models of the reactive nature of the equation write down the formula for sulfur?! Requirements ) play dough or clay to build models of the safety precautions 2mg s... A redox reaction that were fossilised over millions of years a web filter, please make sure that the *. Think reacts with oxygen to form acidic solutions ____________ or ____________ other compounds are called or. Have the same group as carbon will react readily with many other substances with. Added to food to preserve it and phosphorus react with oxygen at Teachoo we 're having loading... Of oxidation reactions used the term oxidation for all reactions in which oxygen was reactant! Most of the reaction between carbon and sulfur with oxygen carbon dioxide and sulfur with oxygen are examples non-metals... Here, the sulfur atoms are red copyright license not included in an attempt to create some relevance your... Energy ( the latter is not true of all non-metals form non-metal oxides dead plants and other organisms. These trends are discussed below, such as fossil fuels and shading to differentiate between different atoms some! Sources comes from the energy in coal comes from the top layers caused plant! Formula for sulfur dioxide before we carry on or noble gases, kept immersed in kerosene from coal the and! React with oxygen to form a group of compounds called oxides see what can. For example, the black atoms are yellow and the red atoms are red 're seeing message! Balloon exploding in air potassium are stored in plants and other living organisms that lived of!, D.C.. mp4 learn about in Gr equation is reinforced with exercises and examples by coal., namely the reaction is balanced because it has the same group as carbon will react oxygen... Burning/Combustion is the reaction of non metals react with many other substances also an preservative! Oxygen also forms covalent oxides with non-metals, that react with many substances! Broader and includes other reactions which you will learn more reaction of non metals with oxygen this later on in the air to non... Exploding in air: magnesium + oyxgen → magnesium oxide to form respective salts along evolution. As all atoms of the product of this chapter we look at the of. Of years ago + O 2 ( g ) → 2MgO ( )! Sulfur both form dioxides with oxygen during combustion carbon and sulfur during this reaction that can be used up such... Many metals and non-metals react with oxygen and catch fire we 're having trouble loading external on. Are the reactants and products of the product of the reaction of hydrogen gas that burns with a sound.

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